Fred, a fit and healthy 44-year-old, was working outside one warm summer afternoon. When he returned home by the end of the day, his lower back felt sore and he felt nauseated. His wife made him dinner, but he was not hungry and chose to go to bed instead. Fred’s symptoms progressed, and soon he was rolling on the bed with excruciating pain. He said his back hurt as well as his stomach and groin area. The pain would ease off only to return a short while later, and when it did, Fred would begin to sweat and run to the bathroom to vomit. His wife became concerned and she helped him into the car and rushed him to the hospital.
Please answer the following questions and submit your assignment via Blackboard by the due date.
1. At the hospital, an abdominal radiograph showed the presence of renal calculi in Fred’s right ureter (urolithiasis). What is the pathophysiological mechanism of stone formation in the kidney?
2. In the hospital, Fred’s urine is being strained for the presence of stones that he may have passed. What is the importance of this action?
3. What are the 4 primary types of renal calculi and what are the risk factors for each of these types of renal calculi?
4. Hydronephrosis can be a complication of renal calculi. Why is hydronephrosis such a serious complication?