The data was collected using a meta-analysis methodology. The researcher summarized the results of several studies to come up with their report. The information was collected from several scientific studies and journals, synthesized and compiled. Preference was given to studies that used randomized trial method. Different studies were assessed with the main focus being on those that did experiments (lasting a month or more) and recorded results before the study and compared them with the results after the study. For this study, the case study approach was used in which the researcher collected data from past researchers and did an analysis of the secondary data. The researcher was keen to focus only on qualitative and quantitative data that was collected first hand from experiments and observations.
A meta-analysis method was preferred because it was both cost and time effective and provided deep insights on the topic of choice. During the collection of the data, a two-step approach was taken. First, the researcher identified credible sources of information relating to the topic from journals by filtering data using key words. The main key words of choice consisted of a combination of terms; “Epilepsy cure with cannabis” and “therapeutically cure of epilepsy with CBD.” After collecting studies that fitted into the key terms, the researcher then checked the year of publication with only recent studies qualifying (5 years). By reading the abstracts, relevant articles were chosen to be used as data for the study. The second approach entailed deriving data from the chosen sources, synthesizing and analyzing them to create new data. Particular emphasis was on the effects of CBD in the therapeutic cure of epilepsy by comparing the quantities and duration of CBD administration to the symptoms and effects in the patients after approximately two weeks.
Discussion Forum: Research Methods
1. Formulate the Research Methods of your selected topic. Based on the chosen methods, please ensure that your incorporate all appropriate elements.
2. Post your Research Methods.
3. Then, read the posts submitted by two other classmates and provide meaningful feedback for improvement.
This is mine :
Case Study: This is a qualitative research method that facilitates a close assessment of the data within a particular context. A researcher selects few individuals to be the study’s subject (Wilson, 2016). Further, this method helps the researcher to study and investigate opioid education for the youth as a contemporary real-life phenomenon. This exploration and investigation are done through an in-depth contextual analysis of a restricted events’ number relating to the subject of the study.
Phenomenology Method: This qualitative research method enables a researcher to emphasize and focus on studying individual youth’s lived experiences within the world of drugs. It will be easier to study the structure of different types of youth’s experiences ranging from emotion, perception, and imagination regarding the use of opioids. The method builds a complex account of semi-permanent awareness, spatial awareness, and awareness of a person’s experience (Qutoshi, 2018). A researcher can also describe the nature of experience just as he finds it in his experience. Thus, the method is based on a description of the lives of youths who abuse opioids as a surviving mechanism. An interpretation of the type of experience that links or closely connect with relevant features of the context in the study plays a crucial role in the research.
Under the case study method, a researcher can use documentation review as a tool for increasing validity (Wilson, 2016). Documents and data get analyzed to establish sensitive information regarding the subject of the study.
Within the phenomenology method, depth interviews are used as a tool where the respondents are less, and the research focuses on a particular issue or situation.
Qutoshi, S. B. (2018). Phenomenology: A philosophy and method of inquiry. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 5(1), 215-222.
Wilson, V. (2016). Research Methods: Design, Methods, Case Study… oh my!. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 11(1 (S)), 39-40.
What the professor said: You have again incorrectly formulated it. Your method is meta-analysis! Check the in-class practice and replicate that on your study.
Hi, I uploaded my essay into TurnitIn.com and had 28% of plagiarism but thats because of the references as well as the statements that I have, the professor wants its to be 10% or less. Please, help me and you can fix the paper if you must
Opioid Abuse by the Youth
Opioids are substances that act on the opioid receptors so as to produce a morphine like outcome. They are used for pain relief, including anesthesia. They are also used to suppress diarrhoea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, suppressing cough as well as for executions in the United States. Opioids apart from being used for medical purposes they are also frequently used for non-medical purposes. When induced they give a euphoric effect and can also be used to prevent withdrawal (Satterley & Anitescu, 2015). In the United States there have been a lot of youths who use opioids for their euphoric effects. Due to their addictive nature, they have seen a lot of youths addicted to the substances which many result to fatal and adverse effects on the substance abuser.
Opioids are responsible for 1.7 deaths in 10, 000 people. Most of these people are young adults between 18 years to 25 years. Due to the rise in the use of this substances there have been introduction of educating the youths about the drugs. This is to create awareness as well as educate the youth on what to expect if they get themselves mixed up with the practice. In this paper we pose the question, what is the role of opioid education to the youth? We will talk about the impact that the program will have on the youths, be it positive or negative (Knaggs, 2019).
Opioids act by binding to opioid receptors, these are found principally in the peripheral and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract. These receptors mediate both the somatic as well as the psychoactive effects that opioids cause. Opioid drugs include antagonists like naloxegol which are used for opioid induced constipation and partial agonists like the anti diarrhoea drug loperamide (McDONOUGH, 2016). Due to opioids nature of being addictive and might result in fatal overdose, most of them are controlled substances. In the year 2013, between 28 and 38 million people were using opioids illicitly. That is 0.6% to 0.8% of the global population between the ages 15 and 65. In the year 2011, it was estimated that 4 million people in the United States used opioids recreationally and were dependent on them. As of 2015, increased numbers of recreational use and addiction were attributed to over prescription of the medication and inexpensive illicit heroin.
The NIH has a healing initiative for over 50 million Americans who suffer from chronic pain. Opioids medications are the most common for treating pain although effective and safe non opioid options for pain management are lacking. The used of opioids to treat acute and chronic pain has contributed to approximately 10.3 million people aged 12 years and older in the united states in 2018 who abused opioids (Hubbell & Reid, 2018). In 2018, NIH, in consultation with a broad range of stakeholders, identified a set of research that when prioritized will reflect urgent unmet needs across the lifespan. Areas that show promising scientific opportunity as well as concrete strategies that are very possible of providing durable and rapid solutions to the opioids crisis. Through this initiative, NIH supports research to enhance pain management as well as improving treatment for opioid addiction and misuses.
The initiative includes research focus areas that are led by 12 NIH ICs supporting hundreds of projects that reflect the full spectrum of research from basic science direct to the implementation research. This research serves the overall same purpose as that of opioid education among the youth (Satterley & Anitescu, 2015). They both seek to have a world that is free of opioid dependency and abuse.
There are set ways that the government is using to create awareness of the opioid crisis. Some of these methods are, there have been a wide range of adverts and TV commercials that show the effect that opioid abuse can have on a human being. These commercials are not directed to a specific group but instead they are being used to create awareness in this way: when parents and guardians watch the commercials and get informed on what signs they should look for to know if someone is under opioid abuse (Knaggs, 2019). This can help parents and guardians in spotting their affected youth, relatives and neighbors and help them get though their addiction or even seek for professional help. The commercials can also aid youths to discover how harmful opioids can be to a human body if they are induced for recreational purposes.
The government has also introduced education of the youth about opioid abuse and addictions. The schools are keen on teaching the youths on the dangers of using the substances as well as offering help for those who are already affected by opioid abuse. This education is meant to encourage and congratulate those who are free of the substances and at the same time giving hope to those who are already in the practice. It gives them hope of reforming and getting over their addiction. This so far has worked positively and have seen a lot of youth reforming and engaging in positive and conducive activities (Burgos-Chapman, Trevisan, & Sevarino, 2016).
Opioid misuse is decreasing. For example, among high school seniors, the year past misuse of pain medication, heroine excluded, went down from a peak of 9.5 in the year 2004 to 3.4 percent in the year 2018. In the past year, the use misuse of Vicodin went down from peak of 10.5 percent in the year 2003 to a percentage of 1.7 in 2018, lastly the misuse of OxyContin has dropped from a peak rate of 5.5 percentage in the year 2005 to 2.3 percent in the year 2018. In addition, students in the 12th grade believe that it is harder to obtain opioid now than in the past. In 2010, 54% of 12th grade students believed that it was easy to access opioids as compared to 32.5% in 2018 (Hubbell & Reid, 2018). In this case this can be attributed to the awareness that has been created by educating youths about these substances and their effects towards someone. Commercials in the media also work very well in creating an awareness.
Adolescence is a critical stage of life for one to become addicted to a substance. This is due to a lot of factors that were mentioned by some students. This is a stage of self-realization and to some may be confusing and containing mixed emotions. This is due to a teenager trying to understand themselves and what they are meant to become in future, at the same time trying to keep up with the current trends as well as blending with his/her age mates. This can lead to a teenager to take the drugs to escape reality or to fit in with other teenagers who are using opioids for recreational purposes (McDONOUGH, 2016).
The brain’s reward center, matures rapidly during the years preceding adolescence. During this period, children begin to discriminate more carefully between less and more meaningful rewards, a capacity that underlies goal driven behaviors and internal motivation. As much as kids are easily rewarded, even using abstract tokens, as they get to their adolescence, they become more selective in terms of the goals they think are worth pursuing. This phenomenon gets to its peak when children get to their adolescence, at which time presentation of small and meaningless reward will result into deactivation of the brain’s reward center (Reid, Wild, & Bozarth, 2020). This means that, adolescents are developmentally conditioned to look for high stimulating behavior so as to acquire a large neurologic reward, this trait is recognizable in the risk taking behaviors that are often associated with people in this stage of life. Unlike the rewards that happen naturally, psychoactive substances trigger signaling in the reward center through the direct receptor binding (Bain & Kornetsky, 2020). Although this is unhealthy, substance use fills a developmental drive for stimulation in this particular area of the brain effectively. As one would predict, the peak ages of substance use initiation occurs during adolescence and early childhood.
At the end of the behavioral control hardware, the prefrontal cortex, that is responsible for executive functions which are crucial to decision making, this are functions such as self-monitoring, impulse control and error correction and thus this serves as a behavioral brake system, it does not mature to its full potential until the middle of the third decade of living. As a result of this, adolescents are unable and unskilled to conduct these functions and deterred by risk than the adults. In addition to this, immaturity of the prefrontal cortex during this developmental stage appear to leave the brain’s reward center more vulnerable and prone to developing the changes which might result into a neurologic disorder of addiction (Knopf, 2017).
Relatively fewer exposures result in substance use disorder symptoms among teenagers compared to adults, and also the risk of developing a substance use disorder (SUD) is in a way related with age of initiation. For example, children who are initiated into drinking alcohol before the age of 14 years are 5 times more likely to develop an addiction as compared to those that started drinking from the age of 19.this pattern is similar to one seen with both marijuana and the misuse of prescription opioid medication (Satterley & Anitescu, 2015). Indeed, delayed substance use initiation into adulthood is associated with a reduced risk of one ever developing an SUD. This is one of the reasons and importance for the government early interventions and prevention strategies that are designed to delay initiation as well as a reduced use in this group.
Psychologic vulnerability to substance use is aggravated by environmental factors, these include the availability, promotion and modeling of substance use behaviors (Bain & Kornetsky, 2020). Through science it has been said that teenagers are particularly sensitive to the influence of cultural messaging. The three most used substances by the adolescents are marijuana, alcohol and tobacco. The three choices are driven by either the availability and also cultural acceptability, this includes the perceived harm they bring. In the late 1990s, availability of prescription pain medications served as a perfect invitation to start using opioids for recreational purposes by teenagers as well as developing its addiction. The combination of the promotion of opioid medication to be safe with easy access through diverted prescription (McDONOUGH, 2016). They can be found in family medicine cabinet. Unlike heroin in the 1970s, which was induced by injection, opioid pills could be swallowed or snorted after being crushed into a powder, this further lowering the bars of invitation.
Substance use results into vast majority of life years lost due to illnesses, disability and premature deaths among those aged 15 to 24. It is arguably the most important modifiable health behavior that has impacted the youth. Due to the times we are in, youth are faced by a vast landscape of more potent products, new delivery methods, and synthetic alternatives such as electronic cigarettes, fentanyl, codeine products and potent cannabinoids. These are far more addictive than psychoactive substances that were available to teenagers in the past (Reid, Wild, & Bozarth, 2020). Marijuana, alcohol and tobacco products are more commonly used in high school students as compared to opioids abuse thus the secondary prevention that is to say, initiating treatment of other substance use way before the use of opioids ever begin as logical strategy.
The American academy of pediatrics has called on pediatricians to screen all young adults as well as adolescents for use of substance use and manage the whole spectrum, starting from preinitiation to SUD. Integrating SUD treatments within a pediatrics primary care, as well as engaging primary care providers in managing of substance use as they do to people with other disorders, it has the potential to radically revise as well as dramatically increasing access to SUD treatment for the youths (Drake, 2017).
Among adolescents, Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) are not as common as tobacco, marijuana and alcohol disorders although the death rate of patients with untreated OUD is high. The treatment of OUD include prescription medications, there is use of model that combines both primary care management as well as an integrated behavioral health specialists while at the same time having an expert backup which has demonstrated as being acceptable in the pediatric primary care as well as being feasible with the subspecialist support (Pfeiffer, 2019).
Creating awareness of these substances and how they are abused has had its dark sides too. For instance through raising awareness many teenagers have gained information about the opioids and due to teenagers and young adults curiosity, they might get tempted to try them out without having considered the consequences. The TV commercials might be the best way for students finding out where and how to acquire the substance (Knopf, 2017). This has seen the media make the use of opioids for their euphoric feel more acceptable and common in people’s minds. This is opposite to what is usually the case with marijuana, cocaine and heroin. Due to them not being televised against, the society still holds them with the same perspective as they did in the past. Opioids on the other hand have grown to being more acceptable thanks to the media.
In schools it is hard for every school to talk about the subject. This is because teachers cannot control what happens outside the school compound and most students will still use their free time from school to use all these substances for their euphoric feel despite having taught against opioids in class (Bain & Kornetsky, 2020). This has been supported by just how available the opioids are and the nature of conditions they are used to treat, this is to mean that they are basic drugs and can be found in almost all chemists and can be used to ease pain which might mean a lot of different pain. This is to say that the reason for one to go and buy an opioid is common and this supports the continued usage of opioids (McDONOUGH, 2016).
Opioid abuse has become a national disaster and requires more intense methods of stopping it to the ones that are being used at the moment. This should be inclusive of teaching youths on the adverse effects that using the drug might bring to them as well as their health. The approach towards the youths too should change a little too (Drake, 2017). This is because experts should understand that they are dealing with young, creative minds with a lot of energy and this should influence their way of delivery. Finding ways that will capture youth’s attention and use it to administer the kind of learning that the youths will find most effective and can relate to. This will make their listening skills better. A lot of young lives are being wasted or even die due to addiction to opioids. This is sad and needs to be addressed with a lot of vehemence. The government should continue teaching about the substances and advising against them too. The availability of opioids needs to be cut and made a little more complicated for anyone to get the drugs with or without a prescription (Pfeiffer, 2019). The government has been really trying to work their course of eliminating the opioid abuse by youths. As it is, more and more youths have developed an addiction towards opioids. The role of opioid education in the youth is most needed now.
Bain, G. T., & Kornetsky, C. (2020). Opioids’ Modification of Central Reward Processes. Opioids, Bulimia, and Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 73-87. doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-9000-8_4
Burgos-Chapman, I., Trevisan, L. A., & Sevarino, K. (2016). Abuse of Opioids and Prescription Medications. Oxford Medicine Online. doi:10.1093/med/9780199392063.003.0005
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Satterly, M. V., & Anitescu, M. (2015). Opioids and Substance Abuse. Substance Abuse, 179-192. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-1951-2_15
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